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Hepatitis A and B - Answers

1. A small capsule that encloses proteins.

2. A virus needs a host to reproduce.

3. Replicates until the cell bursts.

4. Liver (hepatic) cells.

5. Yellowish staining of the skin and sclerae (the whites of the eyes) by abnormally blood high levels of the bile pigment bilirubin.

6. When red blood cells are broken down by the body, hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying portion of the red blood cell, is broken down to a protein, bilirubin. The liver processes the bilirubin.

7. The hepatitis virus infects the liver cells, damaging them. The liver is unable to efficiently break down bilirubin which is elevated in the bloodstream causing jaundice.

8. Fatigue, nausea with vomiting, jaundice, fever, and chills, and abdominal pain.

9. Fatigue, decreased appetite, weight loss, aching in the abdominal area.

10. Laura's symptoms are much vaguer than Jon's.

11. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver.

12. The liver:

  • A. Manufactures essential proteins
  • B. Acts as a storage unit for sugars, vitamins, and fats.
  • C. Transforms smaller compounds into larger ones such as cholesterol.
  • D. Purifies the blood.

13. Hepatitis A

14. Hepatitis B

15. Hepatitis A

16. Hepatitis C

17. Because of poor sanitation, water and food may be contaminated with human feces. People that eat or drink in this region have a high risk of becoming a carrier of Hepatitis A or becoming symptomatic.

18. A carrier is asymptomatic but "carries" an infectious organism such as hepatitis. A carrier is often not aware that they are carrying an infectious organism because they are not symptomatic. The disease is spread through poor hand washing or poor sanitation. This is why people who work with food must be so careful to wash their hands.

19. When the organism produces sufficient tissue damage through many different mechanisms, the definition of infectious disease applies.

20. ALT

21. Jaundice.

22. When the liver cells are damaged, they cannot properly break down bilirubin.

23. Dehydration is a loss of water and important salts like potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+).

24. Kidney, Brain, and Heart.

25. Treat the underlying cause of the dehydration and replace fluids.

26. Jon and Laura both have elevated liver enzymes, bilirubin, and a slightly decreased albumin level indicating liver damage. The differences in their enzyme and bilirubin levels are due to individual differences in their reactions to the disease. The key point is that the abnormal results of the combined tests point to liver damage and hepatitis.

27. Chronic infections can lead to scarring of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death.

28. Acute symptoms are treated in both forms of hepatitis. This would be treating symptoms such as nausea, discomfort, and dehydration. Intravenous fluids may be administered to relieve dehydration. Hepatitis B may lead to a chronic infection and may be treated with an interferon drug which helps boost the patient's immune system to fight the virus.