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Type 1 Diabetes - Answers

1. pH of the urine, concentration of the urine, protein, sugar (glucose), ketones, bilirubin, nitrates (evidence of infection), blood

2. Cells including RBC's and WBC's, bacteria or yeast, casts, crystals

3. Visual exam including a urine dipstick; microscopic exam

4. Groups of tests that are routinely ordered to determine a person's general health status. 

5. Blood glucose, calcium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), Creatinine.  Assesses kidney and respiratory function, electrolyte and blood glucose levels.  

6.  Contains same information as basal metabolic panel with addition of liver enzymes and blood proteins.  Basal metabolic panel + albumin, total protein, liver enzymes ( Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), bilirubin.

7. Sodium. Helps regulate water balance
Potassium.  Muscle contractions and heart rhythm
Chloride. Abnormal changes occur with changes in sodium level.  With sodium helps regulate water balance.
Bicarbonate. Helps to maintain a stable pH.

8. Blood glucose

9.  BUN and Creatinine

10. Medical Laboratory Scientist

11.   pH (acidity), oxygen content, and carbon dioxide content of the blood.

12. A physician orders an ABG to detect changes in the patient's acid-base balance in the blood. This balance is critical. The lungs and the kidneys regulate acid-base balance. An ABG can, therefore, detect respiratory conditions or disease, kidney function (metabolic), and is also used to monitor oxygen therapy.

13. Arterial. Arterial blood is oxygenated blood.

14. Respiratory therapist.

15. Systolic: Force on blood vessels from the pumping of the heart.
Diastolic: Lowest pressure on the blood vessels when the heart is relaxed.

16. Aneurysm, stroke, chronic kidney disease, eye damage, heart attack, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, carotid artery disease, vascular dementia.

17. Individuals with type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin. Insulin is necessary for glucose to enter into the cells where it is utilized. When the cells do not receive energy from carbohydrate breakdown, the body begins to break down fat as a secondary energy source. Byproducts of fat breakdown are ketone bodies which lead to the blood being more acidic than the tissue.

18. Symptoms include frequent urination and thirst, weight loss, increased appetite, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, muscle stiffness, mental stupor, hyperventilation, fruity breath.

19. Destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas by the body's own immune system.

20. Insulin is released as the body's blood glucose (sugar) begins to rise. The insulin facilitates the transport glucose into the cells.

21. Excessive thirst, frequent urination, weight loss.

22. The body's cells are starving because they cannot get the glucose they need for energy. Glucose levels rise in the bloodstream because it is not transported into the cells. Glucose is a large molecule and pulls water out of the tissues leading to dehydration, excessive urination, and excessive thirst. Because the cells cannot get the energy they need, the body breaks down fat stores for energy and weight loss occurs.

23. Increased glucose levels in the blood and urine. Ketone bodies are present in the urine in cases of diabetic ketoacidosis.

24. A nurse educator specializes in nursing education.  Typically a nurse educator has a masters or doctorate degree.  A diabetes educator works with patients with diabetes to help them manage their disease.

25. An endocrinologist is a specially trained physician who treats patients with hormone-related diseases and conditions.

26. Giving too much insulin for the amount of food eaten (amount of carbohydrates), skipping or delaying a meal, increasing physical activity, drinking too much alcohol without enough food, being sick.

27. Symptoms vary from individual to individual but may include anxiety, sweating, tremor, palpitations, nausea, and pallor headache, mild confusion, and abnormal behavior. Severe hypoglycemia may lead to seizure, unconsciousness, and coma.

28.  Symptoms include increased thirst or hunger, frequent urination, glucose in the urine, headache, blurred vision, fatigue.

29.  Symptoms of ketoacidosis include ketones in the urine, shortness of breath, fruity-smelling breath, dry mouth, stomach pain, nausea, and vomiting.