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Burn - Answers

1. Shock is the inability of the circulatory system to supply cells with oxygen.

2. The heart fails to pump, loss of blood volume, dilation of blood vessels.

3. Increased heart rate, increased respiration, constriction of peripheral circulation, pale, cool skin.

4. When perfusion to organs cannot be restored. Cell damage occurs, particularly in the kidneys and liver. Death may occur.

5. Hypovolemic (hemorrhaging or blood loss), cardiogenic (heart failure or heart attack), neurogenic (vessel dilation due to nerve damage in spinal cord injuries), sepsis or anaphylactic shock may also cause blood vessel dilation and shock.

6. Treat the cause of the shock. Lay the patient down, and raise and support the legs. Be aware of spinal injury or injury to legs before raising them. Keep the patient warm.

7. This solution is isotonic with blood or the same concentration as blood.

8. Restores fluid loss, induces urine output, and helps maintain a normal blood pH.

9. Yes, a first-degree burn can become a second-degree burn (a sunburn that blisters) and second-degree burns may evolve into third-degree burns.

10. 50%.

11. Burns that involve the face, nose, mouth, or neck.

12. The burn may restrict motion of the chest wall and restrict breathing.

13. Electrical burn, chemical burns.

14. Clean with lukewarm water, remove rings or bracelets, apply a topical antibiotic and update tetanus immunization with a booster if needed.

15. Stridor is caused by upper airway obstruction or narrowing.

16. A mechanical ventilator is a machine that assists with breathing. A patient is connected through an endotracheal tube that is placed in the trachea (windpipe). The mechanical ventilator delivers well-oxygenated air into the lungs and removes carbon dioxide from the lungs.

17. In adequate respirations from a poorly placed tube, brain damage, cardiac arrest, death. Aspiration of stomach contents can result in pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. A pneumothorax (collapsed lung) may also occur.

18. To protect her airway.

19. To keep the patient from becoming hypoxic (low in oxygen) or from vomiting and aspirating the vomit into the lungs.

20. X-rays use electromagnetic waves.

21. Ribs and spine.

22. Black (for example, the lungs).

23. Patients lose a lot of protein from the burn injury and muscle breakdown.  Additional protein helps rebuild lost muscle.

24. Carbohydrates are needed for energy for the body to heal.  Glucose, made from carbohydrates, is the primary energy source used for healing.

25. The upper level of fat in the diet should be 30%.  Too much fat can weaken the immune system.

26. Medical removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue.

27. Surgical, mechanical, chemical, autolytic, or maggot therapy.

28. Transplantation of skin.

A. The split-thickness that includes the epidermis and part of the dermis.

B. Full thickness: consists of epidermis and the entire thickness of the dermis.

C. Composite graft: Contains skin and underlying cartilage or other tissue.

30. Packed cells are whole blood minus the plasma or liquid portion of the blood so that only the cells are left. Giving whole blood would be too much fluid for most patients so just the oxygen carrying part of the blood (red blood cells) are transfused.