Abstracts for Oral Presentation Session A
Oral Presentations will be held March 29th from 1:00-2:15 p.m.
Callie Oyama - "The Art of Plagiarism: Sampling in the 21st Century"
Mentor: Sheree Josephson
College: Arts & Humanities
Abstract: Sampling has been a prominent issue within copyright law ever since its introduction to American society in the 1980s. To sample is to take portions of prerecorded audio and piece them together to create an altered composition. This research aims to determine the validity of sampling in relation to copyright law and how this practice has been regulated. Sampling enters a gray area of ethics that can be interpreted from two different perspectives. On one hand, copyright law favors the individual and protects the original work of artists and musicians. On the other hand, this same law also favors the betterment of the general public and promotes intellectual and artistic creativity. Despite there being lack of clarity in what exactly constitutes legal sampling, previous court rulings have concluded that sampling is ultimately copyright infringement, regardless of the size of the sample or if it was done unintentionally. In order for artists to sample work without violating copyright law, they must obtain a license and permission from the original owner of the music they wish to use.
Justin White - "Effects of Mindfulness-Based Program at George Washington High School"
Mentors: Aminda O'Hare, David Aguilar-Alvarez, Nicole Berthelemy
College: Social & Behavioral Sciences
Abstract: This collaborative senior thesis project implemented a Mindfulness Based Intervention (MBI) at an Ogden School District Title-1 school. The objectives of this study were to assess if exposure to a six-week MBI would 1) influence reductions in salivary cortisol levels, resting heart rate and blood pressure, and 2) increase self-reported mindful awareness and improve self-reported levels of mood. Researchers recruited 51 11th and 12th grade students (15 to 18 years-old) from two English classes for data collection. Over six weeks, MBI sessions were incorporated into the students' course plan and were taught at 30 minute intervals, twice weekly, across ten individual sessions. The biomarker and self-report measures were assessed at pre-intervention and post-intervention. Twenty-nine student participants attended at least one MBI session, while 9 attended four or more sessions. Pearson's correlation coefficient assessed the relationship between socio-economic risk-score and positive affect, revealing a significant negative relationship, r (6) = -.838, p < .005, only following the MBI. These results suggest environmental and developmental conditions surrounding low socioeconomic status may be positively influenced by mindfulness training in at-risk, urban youth.
Patrick Luo - "Clinical Measures Related to Return to Activity Success after ACL Reconstruction"
Mentor: Conrad Gabler
College: Health Professions
Department: Athletic Training
Abstract: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries are a prevalent problem among athletes attempting to return to their pre-injury activity level (RTAL) without putting themselves at risk for a second ACL injury. There are many clinical measures that are used to determine a patient's readiness to return to activity (RTA) after ACL reconstruction. However, the validity of these measures is questionable relative to RTA success. The purpose of this study is to deduce which measures are associated with successful RTA. RTA success can be identified as either an attempt to RTA, RTAL, or not sustaining a second ACL injury. A systematic review was performed. An electronic search strategy was utilized to capture a full history of articles up until 2019 via PubMed and EBSCOhost. The specific databases used were CINAHL, CINAHL Complete, MEDLINE, and SPORTS Discus. After excluding duplicates and studies that did not fit the purpose of the study, 50 articles were included in the qualitative synthesis [6 retrospective-cohorts, 20 prospective cohorts, and 24 cross-sectional studies]. Thereafter, the methodological quality of studies was rated using the Modified Coleman Methodology Score, and data was extracted to determine which measures were significant and not significant in their associated with RTA success.
Tyler Browning - "Proposed Janus Kinase 1 Specific Inhibitors for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis"
Mentor: Tracy Covey
Department: Chemistry & Biochemistry
Abstract: Janus kinase's (JAK's) essential role in the cytokine receptor transduction pathway has provided new targets for therapeutic intervention in many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. A desire to formulate disease dependent JAK specific inhibitors, in an attempt reduce side effects, has spurred an increase in research. Herein we attempt to build upon previous research to formulate a JAK1 specific inhibitor for the treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that displays a greater affinity profile than that of upadacitinib, the only JAK1 specific inhibitor currently approved for the treatment of RA. Structural analysis of the JAK family's ATP binding site with bound upadacinitib lead us to believe that certain expressed moieties contributed to decreased specificity, and that specificity could be increased through structural alteration. A structure activity relationship was conducted to identify how select alterations changed compound selectivity for JAK inhibition. This activity was achieved through computer modeling and comparison of computed score functions. The ability of this compound to be administered orally was then evaluated through comparison with Lipinski's rule of five. Finally, hepatic metabolites of the compounds were evaluated for post metabolism JAK1 affinity, finding that a significant decrease in specificity would likely lead to a need for metabolic controls.
Joseph Packard - "Disruption of mouse respiratory microbiome by vaporized nicotine"
Additional Student: Brayden McGary
Mentor: Daniel Clark
Abstract: Vaping is the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cig) that contain nicotine, but not smoke. Vaping is seen as a safer alternative to traditional cigarettes and has increased substantially over the past ten years, with 3 to 5% of Americans reporting regular e-cig use. Despite potential advantages compared to smoking, the CDC reported over 2,800 hospitalizations and/or deaths this year due to electronic vaping associated lung injury (EVALI) in the United States. There is much debate over the nature of the danger caused by vaping; importantly, little is known about the effects of nicotine vapor on the respiratory microbiome. To this end, we examined the microbiome of the upper and lower respiratory tract of four mice—two control mice and two that received vaporized nicotine (10.0 mg/ml once daily for 28 days). Post-mortem respiratory tissue lavage was processed to extract DNA and PCR-amplify 16S ribosomal sequences, which were used to prepare an Illumina DNA sequence library. Operational taxonomic units were mapped using BLASTn to compile counts of species-specific total reads. This sequencing analysis revealed a 50-fold increase in Staphylococcus saprophyticus in both the upper and lower respiratory tract of each of the nicotine-treated mice (p < 0.005), and several other bacteria only infected the nicotine-treated lungs. On the other hand, several species representing the normal microbiome were reduced by greater than two-fold in the nicotine-treated isolates. These findings represent a disruption of the microbiome of the mouse respiratory tract due to vaping, which could represent potential changes and infections in humans.